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Infectious diseases
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Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson

Infectious Diseases By Andoh Wilson

Slide 2

Infectious Disease Terms

Infectious Disease Terms

Epidemiology

Epidemic

Endemic

Pandemic

Pathogen

Opportunist

Nosocomial

virulence

Slide 3

Normal Micro flora & its importance

Normal Micro flora & its importance

Prevent the growth of pathogens

Stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that cross-react with invading pathogens

Aid in digestion of cellulose in ruminants.

Produce essential nutrients

Slide 4

Kochs Postulates

Kochs Postulates

The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease;

The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture;

The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is introduced into a healthy but susceptible organism.

The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and be shown to be the original organism.

Slide 5

Modifications to Kochs Postulates

Modifications to Kochs Postulates

Some infectious agents cannot be cultured e.g. prions

Some pathogens have non-virulent strains whose presence does not link them to a disease. E.g. non encapsulated Diplococcus pneumoniae

Slide 6

Types of Pathogens

Types of Pathogens

Bacteria

Gram positive

Gram negative

Acid-Fast e.g. Mycobacteria

Spherical described as cocci

Rod shaped described as bacilli

Slide 7

Gram Positives

Gram Positives

Unique Features

Thick peptidoglycan wall

No periplasmic space

No outer membrane (capsule)

E.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium tetani

Slide 8

Gram Positive wall

Gram Positive wall

Slide 9

Gram Negatives

Gram Negatives

Unique features

Thin peptidoglycan wall

Has periplasmic space containing different degradative enzymes such as deoxyribonucleases, -lactamases and proteases

Outer membrane containing lipid A, an endotoxin

E.g. Neisseria, Salmonella typhi, E. coli, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae

Slide 10

Gram Negative wall

Gram Negative wall

Slide 11

Types of pathogens

Types of pathogens

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