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Acids and Bases. Experimental Definitions
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Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Strong bases ionize completely in water solution. 100%

NaOH(aq) --> Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

Weak bases only partially ionize in water solution.

NH3(aq) + H2O --> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

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Neutralization

Neutralization

During neutralization, an acid reacts with a base, forming water and a salt.

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The pH Scale

The pH Scale

pH is a means of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution.

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The pH Scale

The pH Scale

pH means “power” of hydrogen.

pH = -log[H+]

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The pH Scale

The pH Scale

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Acid Rain

Acid Rain

Nonmetal oxides present in air react with water, forming acidic solutions. Rain with a pH of less than 5.6 is considered to be acid rain. Carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the major nonmetallic oxides responsible for acid rain formation.

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Antacids: A Basic Remedy

Antacids: A Basic Remedy

Hyperacidity is when the stomach secretes too much acid. Antacids are often taken to neutralize excess acid and reduce the symptoms of hyperacidity.

Excessive use of antacids can lead to an increase in the pH of blood, a condition known as alkalosis.

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Antacids: A Basic Remedy

Antacids: A Basic Remedy

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Antacids: A Basic Remedy

Antacids: A Basic Remedy

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Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Sulfuric acid is the leading chemical substance produced in the U.S. It is used to manufacture fertilizers and industrial chemicals. It is the acid of automotive batteries. Production is 40 billion kg/year.

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Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Hydrochloric acid has a number of uses. It is used as a rust remover, it removes lime from mortar and household plumbing fixtures. It can be purchased from hardware stores as muriatic acid. Annual U.S. production is 4 billion kg.

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Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Acids and Bases in Industry and at Home

Lime (CaO) is produced by heating limestone (CaCO3).

CaCO3 + heat --> CaO + CO2

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