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Industrial Revolution in the United States
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Slide 21

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Labor

Labor was scarce before 1840.

Working conditions were poor.

Women and children were important sources for labor.

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Working Conditions

Working conditions were poor in the factories.

They were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated.

Hours were long.

Wages were low.

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Child Labor

Scarce labor made factories turn to using children.

Half of the factory laborers were children under ten years old in 1820.

Conditions caused children to be mentally, emotionally, and physically stunted.

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Working Women

Women in the work force were uncommon.

Mostly single women worked.

Only about 20% of women worked in 1830.

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Working Women

Opportunities to be self-supporting were scarce.

Being a nurse, domestic servant, or teacher were the only opportunities available outside the factory.

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Women in the Factories

Most factory work was in the textile industry.

Most women worked six days a week.

They worked from twelve to thirteen hours a day (from dawn to dark).

Most female factory workers came from the farm.

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Lowell, Mass. as an Example

Women workers came from the farm.

They were supervised by company matrons.

They lived in company boarding houses.

These women provided a disciplined and docile work force.

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A Contrast, How the Rest Lived

Factory owners became part of the upper class.

They joined the landowners and merchants.

They reaped the benefits of labor.

Fortunes were amassed.

The profits were rarely passed on to the workers.

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A Contrast, How the Rest Lived

The middle class expanded.

It now included factory managers and supervisors.

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Improving Life?

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