Labor was scarce before 1840.
Working conditions were poor.
Women and children were important sources for labor.
Working conditions were poor in the factories.
They were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated.
Hours were long.
Wages were low.
Scarce labor made factories turn to using children.
Half of the factory laborers were children under ten years old in 1820.
Conditions caused children to be mentally, emotionally, and physically stunted.
Women in the work force were uncommon.
Mostly single women worked.
Only about 20% of women worked in 1830.
Opportunities to be self-supporting were scarce.
Being a nurse, domestic servant, or teacher were the only opportunities available outside the factory.
Most factory work was in the textile industry.
Most women worked six days a week.
They worked from twelve to thirteen hours a day (from dawn to dark).
Most female factory workers came from the farm.
Women workers came from the farm.
They were supervised by company matrons.
They lived in company boarding houses.
These women provided a disciplined and docile work force.
Factory owners became part of the upper class.
They joined the landowners and merchants.
They reaped the benefits of labor.
Fortunes were amassed.
The profits were rarely passed on to the workers.
A Contrast, How the Rest Lived
The middle class expanded.
It now included factory managers and supervisors.