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Culture
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Chapter Two

Chapter Two

Culture

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Language, Beliefs, Values, Norms, Behavior Passed from One Generation to the Next

Material vs. Nonmaterial Cultures

What is Culture?

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What is Normal, Natural, or Usual?

The Culture Within Us

Culture as Lens

Culture Shock

Ethnocentrism

Culture and Taken-for-Granted Orientations

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Understanding Cultures on Their Own Terms

Sick Cultures

Confronting Contrasting Views of Reality

Practicing Cultural Relativism

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Gestures

Conveying Messages without Words

Gestures Meaning Differ Among Cultures

Can Lead to Misunderstandings

Components of Symbolic Culture

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Language

Allows Human Experience to be Cumulative

Provides Social or Shared Past

Provides Social or Shared Future

Allows Shared Perspective

Allows Complex, Shared, Goal-Directed Behavior

Components of Symbolic Culture

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Language Has Embedded Within It Ways of Looking at the World

Sapir-Whorf Reverses Common Sense

Language and Perception: Sapir-Whorf

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Values - What is Desirable in Life

Norms - Expectations or Rules for Behavior

Sanctions - Reaction to Following or Breaking Norms

Positive Sanctions

Negative Sanctions

Moral Holidays

Values, Norms, and Sanctions

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Folkways - Norms not Strictly Enforced

Mores - Core Values: We Insist on Conformity

Folkways and Mores

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Subculture - A World Within the Dominant Culture

Countercultures - Groups With Norms and Values at Odds With the Dominant Culture

Subcultures and Countercultures

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