John Adams, the 1st President to live in Washington, D.C., leaves before Jefferson’s inauguration
Jefferson’s Inauguration takes place on March 4, 1801 in Washington, D.C.—the 1st done there
The unfinished White House and Capitol were just about the only buildings in town
4. The Election of 1800
Federalists fear what Jefferson will say—will he start a new revolution?
Jefferson, surprisingly, calls for unity—he states “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
Jefferson DOES NOT propose to change or destroy the structure of the federal government.
Appointed Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the Treasury
Cut military spending
Reduced the army from 4000 to 2500 men
Reduced the navy from 25 to 7 ships
Reduced national debt from $83 million to $45 million
Cut ALL internal taxes
5. Accomplishments made during early part of Jefferson’s 1st term
Only source of government income: tariffs and sales of Western land
Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire
Marbury vs. Madison: Does William Marbury, one of John Adams’ last minute “midnight judges,” receive his commission to be judge or not?
Jefferson had James Madison refuse to give the commission to Marbury
Issue went before the Supreme Court
Ruling became a precedent—an example for future court cases
6. Issues with the Courts
With Marbury vs. Madison, the Supreme Court established the concept of “Judicial Review” of laws
Judicial Review means that the Court may decide if a law is constitutional or not.
If a law is judged to be unconstitutional, or goes against the U.S. Constitution, then the law ceases to be a law.
By 1800, the western boundary of the U.S. was the Mississippi.
The Louisiana Territory, that is all lands west of the Mississippi River which drained into the river, was originally controlled by France.
As part of losing the French-Indian War, France ceded, or gave, the Louisiana Territory to Spain