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Slide 1

The DNA Toolbox

The DNA Toolbox

Sequencing of the human genome was completed by 2007

DNA sequencing has depended on advances in technology, starting with making recombinant DNA

In recombinant DNA, nucleotide sequences from two different sources, often two species, are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule

Slide 2

Methods for making recombinant DNA are central to genetic engineering, the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes

Methods for making recombinant DNA are central to genetic engineering, the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes

DNA technology has revolutionized biotechnology, the manipulation of organisms or their genetic components to make useful products

An example of DNA technology is the microarray, a measurement of gene expression of thousands of different genes

Slide 3

Fig. 20-1

Fig. 20-1

Slide 4

Concept 20.1: DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment

Concept 20.1: DNA cloning yields multiple copies of a gene or other DNA segment

To work directly with specific genes, scientists prepare gene-sized pieces of DNA in identical copies, a process called DNA cloning

Slide 5

DNA Cloning and Its Applications: A Preview

DNA Cloning and Its Applications: A Preview

Most methods for cloning pieces of DNA in the laboratory share general features, such as the use of bacteria and their plasmids

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome

Cloned genes are useful for making copies of a particular gene and producing a protein product

Slide 6

Gene cloning involves using bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene

Gene cloning involves using bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene

Foreign DNA is inserted into a plasmid, and the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a bacterial cell

Reproduction in the bacterial cell results in cloning of the plasmid including the foreign DNA

This results in the production of multiple copies of a single gene

Slide 7

Fig. 20-2

Fig. 20-2

DNA of chromosome

Cell containing gene of interest

Gene inserted into plasmid

Plasmid put into bacterial cell

Recombinant DNA (plasmid)

Recombinant bacterium

Bacterial chromosome

Bacterium

Gene of interest

Host cell grown in culture to form a clone of cells containing the “cloned” gene of interest

Plasmid

Gene of Interest

Protein expressed by gene of interest

Basic research and various applications

Copies of gene

Protein harvested

Basic research on gene

Basic research on protein

Gene for pest resistance inserted into plants

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