HNO3 (aq) = nitric acid
(polyatomic ion) -ide +ic acid
HCN (aq) = cyanic acid
(polyatomic ion) -ite +ous acid
HNO2 (aq) = nitrous acid
Acids formulas get written like any other. Write the H+1 first, then figure out what the negative ion is based on the name. Cancel out the charges to write the formula. Don’t forget the (aq) after it…it’s only an acid if it’s in water!
Carbonic acid: H+1 and CO3-2 = H2CO3 (aq)
Chlorous acid: H+1 and ClO2-1 = HClO2 (aq)
Hydrobromic acid: H+1 and Br-1 = HBr (aq)
Bases react with fats to form soap and glycerol. This process is called saponification.
Bases have a pH of more than 7.
Dilute solutions of bases taste bitter.
Bases turn phenolphthalein PINK, litmus BLUE and bromthymol blue BLUE.
Bases neutralize acids.
Bases are formed when alkali metals or alkaline earth metals react with water. The words “alkali” and “alkaline” mean “basic”, as opposed to “acidic”.
Bases are named like any ionic compound, the name of the metal ion first (with a Roman numeral if necessary) followed by “hydroxide”.
Fe(OH)2 (aq) = iron (II) hydroxide
Fe(OH)3 (aq) = iron (III) hydroxide
Al(OH)3 (aq) = aluminum hydroxide
NH3 (aq) is the same thing as NH4OH:
NH3 + H2O NH4OH
Also called ammonium hydroxide.
Formula writing of bases is the same as for any ionic formula writing. The charges of the ions have to cancel out.
Calcium hydroxide = Ca+2 and OH-1 = Ca(OH)2 (aq)
Potassium hydroxide = K+1 and OH-1 = KOH (aq)
Lead (II) hydroxide = Pb+2 and OH-1 = Pb(OH)2 (aq)
Lead (IV) hydroxide = Pb+4 and OH-1 = Pb(OH)4 (aq)
Lithium hydroxide =
Copper (II) hydroxide =
Magnesium hydroxide =
Acids taste sour (e.g. vinegar, lemon juice).
Acids are harmful to living cells.
Aqueous solutions of all acids contain hydrogen ions.
Acid turns blue litmus red.
Strong acids are corrosive.
Alkalis are taste bitter
Strong alkalis are corrosive.
Aqueous solutions of all alkalis contain hydroxide ion.
Alkalis turns red litmus blue.
Metals above copper in the reactivity series will react with acids, giving off hydrogen gas, forming a salt.