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Viruses, Viroids, and Prions
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Characteristics

Viral capsids (coats) are made of individual protein subunits

Individual subunits are called capsomeres

CAPSOMERES

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Characteristics

Characteristics

Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive

Lack ribosomes and enzymes needed for metabolism

Use the raw materials and enzymes of the host cell to be able to reproduce

EBOLA VIRUS

HIV VIRUS

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Characteristics

Characteristics

Some viruses cause disease

Smallpox, measles, mononucleosis, influenza, colds, warts, AIDS, Ebola

Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia

Virus-free cells are rare

MEASLES

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Viral Shapes

Viral Shapes

Viruses come in a variety of shapes

Some may be helical shape like the Ebola virus

Some may be polyhedral shapes like the influenza virus

Others have more complex shapes like bacteriophages

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Helical Viruses

Helical Viruses

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Polyhedral Viruses

Polyhedral Viruses

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Complex Viruses

Complex Viruses

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Taxonomy of Viruses

Taxonomy of Viruses

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Viral Taxonomy

Viral Taxonomy

Family names end in -viridae

Genus names end in -virus

Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host).

Common names are used for species

Subspecies are designated by a number

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Viral Taxonomy Examples

Viral Taxonomy Examples

Herpesviridae

Herpesvirus

Human herpes virus 1, HHV 2, HHV 3

Retroviridae

Lentivirus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1, HIV 2

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Herpes Virus

Herpes Virus

SIMPLEX I and II

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Adenovirus

Adenovirus

COMMON COLD

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Influenza Virus

Influenza Virus

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Chickenpox Virus

Chickenpox Virus

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Papillomavirus  Warts!

Papillomavirus Warts!

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