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Photosynthesis
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During the fall, what causes the leaves to change colors?

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Fall Colors

In addition to the chlorophyll pigments, there are other pigments present

During the fall, the green chlorophyll pigments are greatly reduced revealing the other pigments

Carotenoids are pigments that are either red, orange, or yellow

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Redox Reaction

The transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another

Two types:

1. Oxidation is the loss of e-

2. Reduction is the gain of e-

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Oxidation Reaction

The loss of electrons from a substance or the gain of oxygen.

Carbon dioxide

Water

Oxygen

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Reduction Reaction

The gain of electrons to a substance or the loss of oxygen.

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Question:

Why do cells use for energy?

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Energy for Life on Earth

Sunlight is the ULTIMATE energy for all life on Earth

Plants store energy in the chemical bonds of sugars

Chemical energy is released as ATP during cellular respiration

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Structure of ATP

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate

It is composed of the nitrogen base ADENINE, the pentose (5C) sugar RIBOSE, and three PHOSPHATE groups

The LAST phosphate group is bonded with a HIGH ENERGY chemical bond

This bond can be BROKEN to release ENERGY for CELLS to use

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Removing a Phosphate from ATP

Breaking the LAST PHOSPHATE bond from ATP, will ---

Release ENERGY for cells to use

Form ADP

Produce a FREE PHOSPHATE GROUP

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High Energy Phosphate Bond

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FREE PHOSPHATE can be re-attached to ADP reforming ATP

Process called Phosphorylation

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Phosphorylation

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Parts of Photosynthesis

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