Acids, Bases, & Salts
pH less than 7
Forms H + ions in solution
Corrosive-reacts with most metals to form hydrogen gas
Good conductors of electricity
HNO3 + H2O H3O+ + NO3
Weak Acids do not ionize completely: Acetic, Boric, Nitrous, Phosphoric, Sulfurous
Strong Acids ionize completely: Hydrochloric, Nitric; Sulfuric, Hydriodic
HCl- hydrochloric- stomach acid
H2SO4- sulfuric acid - car batteries
HNO3 – nitric acid - explosives
HC2H3O2- acetic acid - vinegar
H2CO3-carbonic acid – sodas
H3PO4- phosphoric acid -flavorings
pH greater than 7
Dissolves fats and oils
Usually forms OH- ions in solution
Weak Bases: ammonia; potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate
Strong Bases: sodium hydroxide; sodium phosphate; barium hydroxide; calcium hydroxide
NaOH- sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner
Mg (OH)2 - magnesium hydroxide-antacids
Al(OH)3-aluminum hydroxide-antacids, deodorants
NH4OH-ammonium hydroxide- “ammonia”
In the 1800’s chemical concepts were based on the reactions of aqueous solutions.
Svante Arrhenius developed a concept of acids and bases relevant to reactions in H2O.
Arrhenius acid – produces hydrogen ions in water.
Arrhenius base – produce hydroxide ions in water.
A broader ,more modern concept of acids and bases was developed later.
Bronsted-Lowry acid- donates a hydrogen ion in a reaction.
Bronsted – Lowry base – accepts a hydrogen in a reaction.