The Sun, its planets and other objects in orbit are all together known as the solar system.
(starting with the closest to the Sun)
The Sun is a star which the nine planets move around.
The path each planet travels around is called it orbit.
The planets are kept in their orbits due to the pulling force of the Suns gravity.
Moons are ‘natural satellites’
Moons orbit around a planet
The moon stays in its orbit due to the gravitational pull of the planet
Our moon has a circular orbit
We see the moon because it reflects light
These are minor planets found in their thousands between Mars and Jupiter
These are probably fragments of asteroids that broke up
These are lumps of ‘dirty ice’ a few km across that travel in highly elliptical orbits. As they near the Sun they warm up. This causes a tail of dust and cloud.
A galaxy is made up of billions of stars
Our galaxy is called the Milky Way galaxy, that has a spiral shape
Our Sun is just one of the stars that form the Milky way galaxy
The Milky Way is 100 000 light years across, and the nearest star to Earth (apart from the Sun) is 4.2 light years away
Our solar system is here
A light year is not a period of time
A light year is a distance
A light year is the distance that light travels in one year
As light travels at a speed of 300 000 000 m/s (or 300 000 km/s) then if we multiply this by the number of seconds in a year we will see that light will have travelled 9.5 x 1015 m (9 500 000 000 000 000 m )