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Mighty Mushrooms

Mighty Mushrooms

Fungi are diverse and widespread.

They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients.

Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body.

Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds.

The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungis ecological success.

Slide 2

The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts).

The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts).

Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both.

Fungi exhibit diverse lifestyles:

Decomposers / saphrophytes

Parasites + -

Mutualists + +

Slide 3

Fungal Morphology : hyphae

Fungal Morphology : hyphae

The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients.

Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption.

Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin.

Slide 4

Multicellular Fungus: hyphae

Multicellular Fungus: hyphae

Reproductive structure

Spore-producing

structures

Hyphae

Mycelium

20 m

Slide 5

Septate fungi - Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles.

Septate fungi - Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles.

Coenocytic fungi lack septa.

Some unique fungi have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissues of their host.

Slide 6

Two forms of hyphae

Two forms of hyphae

(b) Coenocytic hypha

Septum

(a) Septate hypha

Pore

Nuclei

Nuclei

Cell wall

Cell wall

Slide 7

Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi + +

Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi + +

Mycorrhizae + + are mutually beneficial symbiotic relationships between fungi and plant roots.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane.

Slide 8

Fungus - have specialized hyphae

Fungus - have specialized hyphae

(b) Haustoria - penetrate cell walls of plants ++ or +-

(a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey

Nematode

Plant

cell

wall

Haustorium

Plant cell

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