Nutritional Requirements by SG Bhuvan kumar
Nutrition means either preparation of food or Supply of nutrients for the release of energy.
The chemical substances required for the production of energy, for the growth and for body building are called Nutrients
The procurement of nutrients is called Nutrition
The important nutrients required for the body are carbohydrates, fats, proteins , vitamins and minerals
Some nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, fats and mineral like sodium are required in large quantities and they are known as Macro-nutrients.
Some nutrients like vitamins and minerals like iron, zinc molybdenum etc are required in very minute doses, (even in micrograms), are known as micro-nutrients.
Carbohydrates are a group of compounds with Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
They are classified into two groups – Simple Carbohydrates and Complex Carbohydrates.
Simple Carbohydrates are sugars like Glucose, Fructose etc.,
Complex Carbohydrates are Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose etc.,
Cellulose is present in plant cells and it is not digested in the human digestive system.
It has no nutritive value in man but the presence of cellulose in food helps to avoid constipation.
Excess glucose is converted into
non-essential amino acids,
One gram of Carbohydrates gives 4 kilo calories of energy
Glycogen is called Animal Starch
Lactose is called Milk sugar
Sucrose is called cane sugar.
Sports persons take glucose to get instant energy
If we eat only rice, only carbohydrates are supplied to the body and body building materials (proteins) will be deficient.
If we eat only proteins, body will be built up but for daily metabolic activities, energy will not be supplied.
Hence for healthy growth, all type of nutrients are required for the body.
Food having all the nutrients in required quantity for the body is called Balanced diet.
Proteins are body building substances with Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. and Sulphur in small amounts.
Proteins have 24 types of amino acids, out of these 20 are present in most of the proteins
Based on our requirement, amino acids are classified into
Essential amino acids and
Non-essential amino acids.
Examples of essential amino acids are Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine etc.,
Examples of Non-essential amino acids are Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic acid etc.