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Water and the Fitness of the Environment
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200

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300

0

20

40

Slide 45

Fig. 3-11a

Fig. 3-11a

EXPERIMENT

Slide 46

Fig. 3-11b

Fig. 3-11b

Calcification rate

(mmol CaCO3

per m2 per day)

40

20

0

300

150

200

250

[CO32] (mol/kg)

RESULTS

Slide 47

Fig. 3-UN3

Fig. 3-UN3

Hydrogen

bond

 +

 +

 +

 +

H

H

O

Slide 48

Fig. 3-UN4

Fig. 3-UN4

Liquid water:

transient hydrogen

bonds

Ice: stable hydro-

gen bonds

Slide 49

Fig. 3-UN5

Fig. 3-UN5

Bases donate OH

or accept H+ in

aqueous solutions

Acids donate H+ in

aqueous solutions

Acidic

[H+] > [OH]

Neutral

[H+] = [OH]

Basic

[H+] < [OH]

14

7

0

Slide 50

Fig. 3-UN6

Fig. 3-UN6

Surface of Earth

Surface of Mars

Slide 51

Fig. 3-UN7

Fig. 3-UN7

Slide 52

You should now be able to:

You should now be able to:

List and explain the four properties of water that emerge as a result of its ability to form hydrogen bonds

Distinguish between the following sets of terms: hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances; a solute, a solvent, and a solution

Define acid, base, and pH

Explain how buffers work

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