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Roman Empire




Slide 1

The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire

Slide 2

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus

63 BC-14 AD

Octavian was winner of 18 years civil war

Designated heir of Julius Caesar

Was of the family of Caesar (adopted) so he took the name Caesar

Given the name Augustus by the Senate

Slide 3

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus

Beginning the Empire

Marked by the reign of Octavian

Returned to principles of the republic (in theory)

But, created important changes to make it work

Senate received power of nominal governing

Allowed free elections

Accepted title “princeps civitatis” or first citizen ("prince")

Initially offered to retire to private life

Held a variety of jobs but ruled effectively regardless of position

Auctoritas = prestige, power from trust, influence

Who else has had this kind of power?

How does a leader get this kind of power?

Slide 4

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus

Beginning the Empire

Augustinian Code

Roman Law was rewritten and solidified

Basis of western laws today


Honest government

Added to the road system

53,000 miles of paved roads

Postal system and other city infrastructure

Standard currency system

Improved harbors

Slide 5

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus


Reduced the size but created a permanent army

Territorial expansion

Purpose: to consolidate boundaries, ensure peace

Generalship given to loyalists—Agrippa and Tiberius

German defeat/consolidation (Herman the German)

Central Europe and the Balkans expansion

Spain consolidation

Africa, annexation of Egypt

Pax Romana

60 million people in peace for more than 400 years

Slide 6

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus

Worship of “Roma et Augustus”

Allowed the east and west unity of worship (each in their own way)

Didn’t push worship so as to not alienate local worship

Slide 7

Caesar Augustus

Caesar Augustus


No male heir

Adopted nephew, Tiberius

Smooth transition of leadership

Stable leadership despite inept emperors

Tiberius took the title "emperor" and all successors did the same

Succession was a problem for the entire time of the empire

Slide 8

Principal Roman Emperors

Principal Roman Emperors

Slide 9



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