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Islam - History, Value, Cultures
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Many directives in the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadiths):

He told his companions as they go home after a battle "We are returning from the lesser jihad [the battle] to the greater jihad, at home"

Three levels:

Personal: That of the soul

Verbal: Raising one's voice in the name of Allah on behalf of justice.

"The most excellent jihad is the speaking of truth in the face of a tyrant" (Hadith)

Physical: Combat waged in defense against oppression and transgression.

Profoundly misunderstood in today's world.

Slide 20

Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early

Much of the Koran revealed in the context of an all-out war imposed on early

Muslims by the powerful city of Mecca, and many passages deal with the conduct

of armed struggle.

While one finds "slay [enemies] wherever you find them!" (e.g., 4: 89),

in almost every case it is followed by something like "if they let you be,

and do not make war on you, and offer you peace, God does not allow you

to harm them" (2:90; 4: 90; 5: 2; 8: 61; 22: 39)

Since good and evil cannot be equal, repel thou evil with something that is

better, and love he between whom and thy self was enmity may then become

as though he had always been close unto thee, a true friend" (41:34)

God does not allow harm of civilian, and requests the protection of women,

children and the elderly during war (4:96; 9: 91; 48: 16,17)

If any one slew a person--unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief

in the land--it would be as if he slew the whole people; and if anyone saved

a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. (5:32)

You shall feed and protect prisoners of war, and you shall not expect a

reward (4: 25,36; 5:24)

Thus, the only permissible war in the Quran is one of self-defense, you

cannot kill unarmed (civilian), and you have to protect prisoners of war

Jihad and the Conduct of War

Slide 21

Jihad and the Conduct of War

Jihad and the Conduct of War

Warfare is always evil. Sometimes you have to fight to avoid persecution. e.g., the one Mecca inflicted on early Muslims (2: 191; 2: 217), or to preserve decent values (4: 75; 22: 40)

Muslims may not begin hostilities

"Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors." (2: 190).

Notice: Defensive war, fight back

Hostilities must be brought to an end as quickly as possible, and must cease the minute the enemy sues for peace (2:192-3; 41:34)

Martyrdom: Those killed during fighting or while doing civic duties (martyrs) are promised a place in heaven (several passages, e.g., 2:154; 3:169-172)

However, suicide is not allowed; it is forbidden and condemned (e.g., 6:151, 17:33, 25:68)

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