Departments and University Hospitals.
Patients records and vital signs, urine tests, family history.
Threads from animals intestine.
Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia.
Alcohol as disinfectant.
Treatment of cataract, and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones
Students training (Anatomy)
Cause of death
Abu-bakr Elrazzy; 9th Century
Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist
Many books including “Smallpox and Measles”
Ibn-Elhaytham: 10th Century
Multidisciplinary scientist. Ophthalmologist
Mechanism of sight. Function of the eye
Over 100 books in Med. and Math.
Ibn-Seena (Avisai): 10th Century
The “Qannun”, the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen.
Described the medical use of over 2700 plants
Light has a finite speed, which is much faster than the speed of sound
Ibn-Rushd (Aviros): 13th Century
Philosopher and Physician. Many books
Blood circulation and the role of lungs
Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis): 11th Century
One of the greatest surgeons. A good dentist and GP.
Removal of breast cancer.
Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male)
•Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate
•Discovered and prepared in pure form 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham)
•The processes of crystallization, fermentation, distillation, sublimation,
•Preparation of acids (H2SO4, HCl, HNO3) and bases (NaOH)
•Light travels in straight lines. Laws of refraction, reflection and illusion of light.
•Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects
•Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers.
•Right Left. English. But 1000
•Arithetic. Roots and powers
•Algorith = Alkhawarismi
•The mathematical ZERO
•Algebra (combining fractions).
•The Use of (x, y, z) to solve complex arithetic/geometric problems
•Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani), differential and Integral.
•p = 3.141596535898732.
•Some known Mathematicians:
•Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century). Calculus.
•Albairuni (10th Century)
•Omar Elkhayam (2° & 3° equations)
Astrology (myth) Astronomy (science)
Movement, path, and location of planets and stars
Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun.
Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni)