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Islam - History, Value, Cultures




Departments and University Hospitals.

Patients records and vital signs, urine tests, family history.


Threads from animals intestine.

Opium and Hashish for Anesthesia.

Alcohol as disinfectant.

Treatment of cataract, and removal of kidney and gallbladder stones

Autopsy !!!

Students training (Anatomy)

Cause of death

Slide 30

Known Physicians

Known Physicians

Abu-bakr Elrazzy; 9th Century

Father of Physicians, great clinician and experimentalist

Many books including “Smallpox and Measles”

Ibn-Elhaytham: 10th Century

Multidisciplinary scientist. Ophthalmologist

Mechanism of sight. Function of the eye

Over 100 books in Med. and Math.

Ibn-Seena (Avisai): 10th Century

The “Qannun”, the medical text book in Europe till 19th Cen.

Described the medical use of over 2700 plants

Light has a finite speed, which is much faster than the speed of sound

Ibn-Rushd (Aviros): 13th Century

Philosopher and Physician. Many books


Blood circulation and the role of lungs

Abulkassim Alzahrawi (Abulcasis or Albucasis): 11th Century

One of the greatest surgeons. A good dentist and GP.

Removal of breast cancer.

Hemophilia and its hereditary transmission (female to male)

Slide 31

Chemistry and Physics

Chemistry and Physics

•Arabic terms and methods of preparation for Alkali, Alcohol, Tartarate

•Discovered and prepared in pure form 28 elements (Ibn Elhaytham)

•The processes of crystallization, fermentation, distillation, sublimation,

•Preparation of acids (H2SO4, HCl, HNO3) and bases (NaOH)

•Light travels in straight lines. Laws of refraction, reflection and illusion of light.

•Eluded to the Magnetic properties of some objects

Slide 32



•Arabic numeral and the decimal system of numbers.

•Right  Left. English. But 1000

•Arithetic. Roots and powers

•Algorith = Alkhawarismi

•The mathematical ZERO

•Algebra (combining fractions).

•The Use of (x, y, z) to solve complex arithetic/geometric problems

•Trigonometry (Albairuni and Albuzjani), differential and Integral.

•p = 3.141596535898732.

•Some known Mathematicians:

•Abu-bakr Alkhawarismi

•Thabit Ibn Qarra (9th Century). Calculus.


•Albairuni (10th Century)


•Omar Elkhayam (2° & 3° equations)

Slide 33



Astrology (myth)  Astronomy (science)

Movement, path, and location of planets and stars

The Asturlab

Earth is spherical and rotates along its axis and around the sun.

Calculated earth circumference (Albairuni)

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