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Islam - History, Value, Cultures
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• Lighted streets, public baths, public libraries and hospitals everywhere

• Other dynasties in Egypt, Spain, and parts of the Levant.

• A 2nd Ummayah dynasty in Spain, 9th century

• Qurtoba (Cordova) competes with Baghdad

• Cairo, built 968 AD

Slide 16

Islam as Monotheistic Religion

Islam as Monotheistic Religion

Slide 17

• Islam:

• Islam:

• ”Surrender”, related to ‘salaam’, or peace.

• Abraham, father of all prophets, is the first Muslim

• Islam is also a code for social conduct

• Quran plus the authentic statements of Muhammad (Hadith) = Shareeha (constitution), as Interpreted by Islamic scholars

• Muhammad is the last prophet (33: 40).

• Gabriel highest ranking angel

• The Quran:

• Islam’s holy book, an inspired scripture. God’s word inspired to his messenger,

• 114 Chapters (chapter = Surah), 4 to >200 verses/chapter (verse = Aiyah)

• Confirms most narratives and prophets of the Jewish and Christian faiths

• Special place for Virgin Mary, the only female (the Chapter of Mary)

• Allah is the word for God used by Christian and Muslim Arabs

• God = Allah (Arabic) = Eluhim (Hebrew) = El (Aramaic)

• One and only one God, no trinity

• Arabic as the language of the Quran

Slide 18

The framework for Muslim life. Essential practices

The framework for Muslim life. Essential practices

1. The declaration of faith:

"There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God"

2. Prayer:

Five obligatory prayers each day.

A direct link between the worshiper and God.

No hierarchical authority or priesthood

3. Zakat:

Obligatory charitable giving.

Wealth belong to God and it is held in trust by humans.

Zakat, or, "purification" by setting aside a portion (2.5%) for the needy

4. Fasting:

From sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan

5. Pilgrimage:

A pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca, Arabia. Only those who can

The 'Five Pillars' of Islam

Slide 19

Jihad and the Conduct of War

Jihad and the Conduct of War

Islam is not addicted to war, and jihad is not one of its "pillars”

Jihad in Arabic does not mean "holy war”. It means "struggle” or “strive”.

It is the difficult effort needed to put God's will into practice at every level

The "greater jihad” in the Quran is that of the soul, of the tongue, of the pen, of faith, of morality, etc. The "smaller jihad" is that of arms.

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