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Islam - History, Value, Cultures




622 Hijraor Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution

and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).

Year 1 in the Islamic calendar

Missionaries sent all over Arabia

building peaceful coalition

629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)

destroys idols in Alqaaba.

single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia

632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will)

Slide 10

Islam by the death of Mohammed 632

Islam by the death of Mohammed 632

Slide 11

632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs)

632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs)

Abu-Bakr - 632-634

The first elected official. Wise leader, crisis manager

Omar Ibn Elkhattab - 634-644

A first-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just.

Conquered the Levant, Egypt, Iraq, Persia

Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully

Omars pledge to the Jerusalemites

A modern state: Treasury, communication, defense. Engraved currency.

Othan bin Affan - 644-656

Collected and compiled the Quran

Emergence of power struggle

Ali Bin Abitalib - 656-661

Power struggle escalated to armed conflict

Emergence of political parties

End of democracy. Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus, Muawyia (661-680)

Slide 12

Islam at 644, the year Omar died

Islam at 644, the year Omar died

Slide 13

The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750

The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750

Empire center and capital move to Damascus

Expansion: All N. Africa (Atlantic), W. Europe, much of C. Asia, the wall of China

711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziyad

Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial, 732

Power Struggle continues, but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals

Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Shiha

Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691)

Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings

Arabization of the empire

Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science

Slide 14

732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed

732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed

Slide 15

The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258

The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258

The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran

Baghdad, built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph).

With over 2 M, Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world

Science, art, architecture, learning, and wealth

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