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Islam - History, Value, Cultures




622 “Hijra”or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution

and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).

Year 1 in the Islamic calendar

‘Missionaries’ sent all over Arabia

building peaceful coalition

629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)

destroys idols in Alqaaba.

single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia

632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will)

Slide 10

Islam by the death of Mohammed 632

Islam by the death of Mohammed 632

Slide 11

632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs)

632-661: the Four Elected Successors (Caliphs)

Abu-Bakr - 632-634

The first elected official. Wise leader, crisis manager

Omar Ibn Elkhattab - 634-644

A first-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just.

Conquered the Levant, Egypt, Iraq, Persia

Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully

Omar’s pledge to the Jerusalemites

A modern state: Treasury, communication, defense. Engraved currency.

Othan bin Affan - 644-656

Collected and compiled the Quran

Emergence of power struggle

Ali Bin Abitalib - 656-661

Power struggle escalated to armed conflict

Emergence of political parties

End of democracy. Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus, Muawyia (661-680)

Slide 12

Islam at 644, the year Omar died

Islam at 644, the year Omar died

Slide 13

The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750

The Ummayah Dynasty, 661-750

• Empire center and capital move to Damascus

• Expansion: All N. Africa (Atlantic), W. Europe, much of C. Asia, the wall of China

• 711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziyad

• Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial, 732

• Power Struggle continues, but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals

• Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Shiha

• Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691)

• Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings

• Arabization of the empire

• Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science

Slide 14

732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed

732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed

Slide 15

The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258

The Abbassides Dynasty, 750-1258

• The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran

• Baghdad, built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph).

• With over 2 M, Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world

• Science, art, architecture, learning, and wealth

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