622 “Hijra”or Escape. Muhammad and followers escape prosecution
and go to Almadinah (Yathrib).
Year 1 in the Islamic calendar
‘Missionaries’ sent all over Arabia
building peaceful coalition
629 Muhammad conquers Mecca peacefully (NO REVENGE)
destroys idols in Alqaaba.
single-handedly, brings peace to war-torn Arabia
632 Muhammad dies in Almadinah. Unmarked grave (his will)
Islam by the death of Mohammed 632
Abu-Bakr - 632-634
The first elected official. Wise leader, crisis manager
Omar Ibn Elkhattab - 634-644
A first-rate statesman. Honest, modest and just.
Conquered the Levant, Egypt, Iraq, Persia
Damascus (9 / 635) and Jerusalem (5 / 638) surrender peacefully
Omar’s pledge to the Jerusalemites
A modern state: Treasury, communication, defense. Engraved currency.
Othan bin Affan - 644-656
Collected and compiled the Quran
Emergence of power struggle
Ali Bin Abitalib - 656-661
Power struggle escalated to armed conflict
Emergence of political parties
End of democracy. Ummayah Dynasty in Damascus, Muawyia (661-680)
Islam at 644, the year Omar died
• Empire center and capital move to Damascus
• Expansion: All N. Africa (Atlantic), W. Europe, much of C. Asia, the wall of China
• 711: Conquer of Spain and Portugal. Tariq Bin Ziyad
• Expansion into W. Europe blocked in France by Charles Martial, 732
• Power Struggle continues, but the Caliphs brutally liquidate all rivals
• Karbalaa in S. Iraq (10 Nov, 680) and the emerge of the Shiha
• Addelmalek builds Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (691)
• Massive translation of Greek and Indian writings
• Arabization of the empire
• Bloom of architecture, arts, agriculture, and science
732, 100 Yrs after Mohammed
• The center of the Empire moves to Iraq and Iran
• Baghdad, built 762 AD by Almansur (2nd Caliph).
• With over 2 M, Baghdad becomes the glamorous center of the world
• Science, art, architecture, learning, and wealth