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Atoms and the Periodic table
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Learning Check

State the number of valence electrons for each.

A. 2, 8, 5

B. 2, 8, 8, 2

C. 2, 7

Slide 46

Solution

Solution

State the number of valence electrons for each.

A. 2, 8, 5 5

B. 2, 8, 8, 2 2

C. 2, 7 7

Slide 47

Energy levels are spaced differently, like ladder rungs

Energy levels are spaced differently, like ladder rungs

Slide 48

Atomic energy levels are like floors of a house

Atomic energy levels are like floors of a house

Slide 49

State transitions for hydrogen

State transitions for hydrogen

Slide 50

Atoms and the Periodic table

Slide 51

Figure 3.8: Atomic orbitals.

Figure 3.8: Atomic orbitals.

Boundary surface diagrams for electron densities of 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals. For the p orbitals, the subscript letter on the orbital notation (x, y, z) indicates the cartesian axis along which the orbital lies.

Slide 52

Figure 3.9: Subshell filling order.

Figure 3.9: Subshell filling order.

Subshells in atoms are filled in order of increasing energy, as this diagram shows. The order of filling is 1s → 2s → 2p → 3s → 3p → 4s → 3d and so on.

Slide 53

Atomic Subshell Energies

Atomic Subshell Energies

Run the following web animations/movies.

3.3:

Slide 54

The Orbital Model: Electronic Configurations

The Orbital Model: Electronic Configurations

Slide 55

Sample energy level diagram

Sample energy level diagram

Slide 56

Atomic Subshell Energies

Slide 57

Figure 3.10: In this “building-up” version of the periodic table, the lightest elements are at the bottom. Electrons fill subshells from bottom to top in order of energy as the atomic number of the atom increases. The numbers across the top give the number of electrons in each subshell. The ground-state electron configurations of most elements are apparent from their positions in the table. Those that are known to differ from expectation are indicated explicitly.

Figure 3.10: In this “building-up” version of the periodic table, the lightest elements are at the bottom. Electrons fill subshells from bottom to top in order of energy as the atomic number of the atom increases. The numbers across the top give the number of electrons in each subshell. The ground-state electron configurations of most elements are apparent from their positions in the table. Those that are known to differ from expectation are indicated explicitly.

Slide 58

Figure 3.10: In this “building-up” version of the periodic table, the lightest elements are at the bottom. Electrons fill subshells from bottom to top in order of energy as the atomic number of the atom increases. The numbers across the top give the number of electrons in each subshell. The ground-state electron configurations of most elements are apparent from their positions in the table. Those that are known to differ from expectation are indicated explicitly.

Figure 3.10: In this “building-up” version of the periodic table, the lightest elements are at the bottom. Electrons fill subshells from bottom to top in order of energy as the atomic number of the atom increases. The numbers across the top give the number of electrons in each subshell. The ground-state electron configurations of most elements are apparent from their positions in the table. Those that are known to differ from expectation are indicated explicitly.

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