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The principal energy levels are designated by the quantum no. n.

Allowed values of n:

Each e- in an atom can be found only in certain allowed principal energy levels (shells) (designated by the q. no. n)

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Larger the value of n, the more likely we are to find the e- at a larger distance from the nucleus with a larger energy (not as stable).

Each energy level is subdivided into . The number of sublevels in an energy level is equal to the

Slide 21

n = 1

n = 2

n=4

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No. of electrons in a principal energy level

Each principal energy level can hold at most _ electrons

So n= 1

n= 2

n = 5

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Principal energy levels are subdivided into sublevels.

Sublevels have the designation s, p, d, f and in terms of energy s<p<d<f.

The value of n tells us how many sublevels are in a principal energy level.

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So for n = 1 there is one sublevel . The 1 gives us the principal energy level and the s tells us the type of orbital that is found in that sublevel.

For n =2 we have and sublevels making up that energy level.

For n= 3 we have

For n =4 we have

For n=5 we have

We don’t worry about any type of orbital (sublevel) beyond f.

Slide 25

An orbital is a region in space where there is a large probability of finding an electron.

Each orbital can hold at most _ electrons. So an orbital can be

Types of orbitals are designated by the s, p, d, f letters.

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The s sublevel is made up of _ orbital shaped like a sphere and can hold at most _ electrons.

The p sublevel is made up of orbitals. Since each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the set of p sublevels can hold a total of _ electrons.

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The d sublevel is made up of orbitals. Since each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the set of d sublevels can hold a total of _ electrons.

The f sublevel is made up of orbitals. Since each orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons, the set of f sublevels can hold a total of electrons.

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- Elements, atoms, ions, and the periodic table
- The periodic law and the periodic table
- Early periodic tables
- Modern periodic table
- Metals and nonmetals
- More info from periodic table
- Electron arrangement and the periodic table
- Principal energy levels (shells)
- Sublevels
- Orbitals
- Electron spin
- What to do with all this info?
- Abbreviated electron configuration
- Valence electrons
- Valence electron configuration for A groups
- The octet rule
- Transition metal cations
- What’s the ion formed by
- Isoelectronic
- Trends in the periodic table
- Size across a period
- Ion size
- Ionization energy
- Trends in ionization energy
- Electron affinity
- Trends in electron affinities

- Upcoming Classes
- The Effects of Radiation on Living Things
- Sound
- Newton's laws of motion
- Gravitation
- Radiation Safety and Operations
- Buoyancy

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