• 1959: Soviet Lunas 1, 2, 3 orbited around Moon
• 1960’s: US Ranger
- flyby mission
- first space pictures
- many TV cameras
• 1966-67: Lunar Orbiter
- 5 orbiting spacecraft
- full coverage of pictures
• 1966-68: Lunar Surveyor
- surveying for landing sites
- testing the “soil” (sink?)
launch: July 16th 1969
arrival at Moon: July 20th 1969
first humans to land on the Moon
On July 20, 1969, after a four day trip, the Apollo astronauts arrived
at the Moon. This photo of Earthrise over the lunar horizon is one of
the most famous images returned from the space program, although
even the astronauts themselves cannot remember who actually took it.
• July 20th 1969
- Neil Armstrong
- “Buzz” Aldrin
Touchdown of Moon astronauts near the coast of Hawaii on July 26th 1969
• Apollo 1-10: pre-landing missions (Apollo 1 module fire killed 3 astronauts while being tested)
• Apollo 11-17 landed (except Apollo 13, which had an explosion and returned to Earth) 12 different astronauts walked on the Moon during 1969-1972
• Principal Scientific results of the Apollo missions:
•The Moon is ancient and still preserves an early history (the first billion years) that must be common to all terrestrial planets.
•The youngest Moon rocks are virtually as old as the oldest Earth rocks. The earliest processes and events that probably affected both planetary bodies can now only be found on the Moon.
•Early in its history, the Moon was melted to great depths to form a "magma ocean." The lunar highlands contain the remnants of early, low density rocks that floated to the surface of the magma ocean.
•The Moon is not a primordial object; it is an evolved terrestrial planet with internal zoning similar to that of Earth.
•The Moon is lifeless; it contains no living organisms, fossils, or native organic compounds
• 1994: Clementine
- UV, IR, visible cameras