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Nervous Systems
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association

area

Visual

association

area

Reading

Taste

Hearing

Auditory

association

area

Speech

Smell

Motor cortex

Somatosensory cortex

Slide 51

Body part representation in primary motor and primary somatosensory cortices

Body part representation in primary motor and primary somatosensory cortices

Primary

somatosensory cortex

Frontal lobe

Pharynx

Parietal lobe

Teeth

Gums

Jaw

Tongue

Lips

Face

Nose

Eye

Thumb

Fingers

Hand

Forearm

Elbow

Upper arm

Head

Neck

Trunk

Hip

Leg

Genitals

Abdominal

organs

Primary

motor cortex

Tongue

Toes

Jaw

Lips

Face

Eye

Brow

Neck

Fingers

Hand

Wrist

Forearm

Elbow

Shoulder

Trunk

Hip

Knee

Thumb

Slide 52

Language and Speech

Language and Speech

Studies of brain activity have mapped areas responsible for language and speech.

Brocas area in the frontal lobe is active when speech is generated.

Wernickes area in the temporal lobe is active when speech is heard.

Slide 53

Mapping language areas in the cerebral cortex

Mapping language areas in the cerebral cortex

Generating

words

Max

Speaking

words

Hearing

words

Seeing

words

Min

Slide 54

Lateralization of Cortical Function

Lateralization of Cortical Function

The corpus callosum transmits information between the two cerebral hemispheres.

The left hemisphere is more adept at language, math, logic, and processing of serial sequences.

The right hemisphere is stronger at pattern recognition, nonverbal thinking, and emotional processing.

Slide 55

The differences in hemisphere function are called lateralization.

The differences in hemisphere function are called lateralization.

Lateralization is linked to handedness.

Slide 56

Emotions

Emotions

Emotions are generated and experienced by the limbic system and other parts of the brain including the sensory areas.

The limbic system is a ring of structures around the brainstem that includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus.

The amygdala is located in the temporal lobe and helps store an emotional experience as an emotional memory.

Slide 57

The limbic system

The limbic system

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Prefrontal

cortex

Olfactory

bulb

Amygdala

Hippocampus

Slide 58

Neural Plasticity

Neural Plasticity

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