Free Powerpoint Presentations

The Chemistry of Acids and Bases
Page
4

DOWNLOAD

PREVIEW

WATCH ALL SLIDES

pH = - log (1.0 x 10-11) = 11.00

Slide 34

The pH of rainwater collected in a certain region of the northeastern United States on a particular day was 4.82. What is the H+ ion concentration of the rainwater?

The pH of rainwater collected in a certain region of the northeastern United States on a particular day was 4.82. What is the H+ ion concentration of the rainwater?

Slide 35

[OH-]

[OH-]

[H+]

pOH

pH

10-pOH

10-pH

-Log[H+]

-Log[OH-]

14 - pOH

14 - pH

1.0 x 10-14

[OH-]

1.0 x 10-14

[H+]

Slide 36

Calculating [H3O+], pH, [OH-], and pOH

Calculating [H3O+], pH, [OH-], and pOH

Problem 1: A chemist dilutes concentrated hydrochloric acid to make two solutions: (a) 3.0 M and (b) 0.0024 M. Calculate the [H3O+], pH, [OH-], and pOH of the two solutions at 25C.

Problem 2: What is the [H3O+], [OH-], and pOH of a solution with pH = 3.67? Is this an acid, base, or neutral?

Problem 3: Problem #2 with pH = 8.05?

Slide 37

HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and HClO4 are among the only known strong acids.

HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and HClO4 are among the only known strong acids.

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION.

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 38

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones.

STRONG ACID: HNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) ---> H3O+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)

HNO3 is about 100% dissociated in water.

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 39

Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water.

Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water.

One of the best known is acetic acid = CH3CO2H

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 40

Strong Base: 100% dissociated in water.

Strong Base: 100% dissociated in water.

NaOH (aq) ---> Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

Other common strong bases include KOH and Ca(OH)2.

CaO (lime) + H2O -->

Ca(OH)2 (slaked lime)

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 41

Weak base: less than 100% ionized in water

Weak base: less than 100% ionized in water

One of the best known weak bases is ammonia

NH3 (aq) + H2O (l)  NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 42

Weak Bases

Weak Bases

HONORS ONLY!

Slide 43

Equilibria Involving Weak Acids and Bases

Equilibria Involving Weak Acids and Bases

Consider acetic acid, HC2H3O2 (HOAc)

HC2H3O2 + H2O  H3O+ + C2H3O2 -

Acid Conj. base

(K is designated Ka for ACID)

Go to page:
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Contents

Last added presentations

2010-2022 powerpoint presentations