Spores form inside the capsule.
Notice the problem of nutrient separation into air and soil is solved with underground and above ground parts. (Although NO TRUE roots, stems or leaves are present)
Slide # 9
Tracheophytes -Vascular Plants-
Contains two types of specialized vascular tissues for transport within the plant:
Xylem- transports H20 up from roots.
Phloem- transports food made during photosynthesis and nutrients to where they are needed in the plant.
Presence of a vascular system allowed plants to become tall.
Has specialized organs: roots, stems, and leaves.
Slide # 10
Tracheophytes are divided into two groups by whether or not they reproduce with seeds.
Ferns use spores
Slide # 11
They grow in moist, shady habitats.
Has underground stems, roots, & large leaves called fronds.
Reproduce using spores, Not seeds.
The Fern - a seedless vascular plant
There are 11,000 species of ferns.
Slide # 12
ADVANTAGE: Developed reproductive strategies that do not need water:
A fully developed embryo
Food supply for embryo
A water-proof seed coat to keep from drying out
Sperm transferred in water-proof pollen through pollination by wind or animals.
Developed seed-bearing structures: Cones and Flowers
Slide # 13
The two Seeded Tracheophyte groups are divided by whether or not they have enclosed seeds -protected inside a fruit or if seeds are exposed to the environment.
Ferns use spores
“naked” or exposed seeds
Flowers produce fruit w/ enclosed seeds
Cycad (Sago palm),
Conifer (pine, spruce, firs, cedars, sequoias, redwoods, junipers, yews, & cypress trees)
Gymnosperms- “naked seed”
Slide # 15
Most common gymnosperms are Conifers
Conifers have leaves called needles or scales have a reduced surface area and thick waxy coat on the needle to reduce water loss and prevents freezing.
Slide # 16