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Communism and the Cold War




1958-60 “Great Leap Forward”

Mao orders collectivization, backyard foundaries

20-30 million die through starvation

1962 break with Soviet Union obvious

1966-76 “Cultural Revolution”

universities close, Red Guards run amok, “counter-revolutionaries” killed

1978 period of (economic) liberalization begins under Deng Xiaoping

Slide 13

Proxy wars

Proxy wars

“minor conflicts” around the world

Major troop deployments:

1950-53 Korea

1965-73 Vietnam

1979-89 Afghanistan

Slide 14

Close call for World War III

Close call for World War III

Cuban missile crisis 1962

Slide 15

The big surprise

The big surprise

The end of European communism

1970s and 80s religious and cultural dissent

failing economies

Reagan’s role?

Slide 16

New blood at the Kremlin

New blood at the Kremlin

1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary

initiates reforms--glasnost and perestroika

1988 allows contested elections within the Communist Party

Slide 17

Movement in Eastern Europe

Movement in Eastern Europe

1980s rise of “Solidarity”--suppressed

1988 illegal “Solidarity” shipworkers, with encouragement from the Pope, go on strike

1989 Polish Communist party (and Gorbachev) allows Solidarity to compete in national elections

Solidarity victory

Slide 18

East Germany

East Germany

Very little reform--the Stasi

Gorbachev calls for change in East Germany

East German tourists go through Hungary to Austria--at first a few, then 10,000s

Berlin Wall is torn down

1990 Germany reunified

Slide 19

Back in USSR

Back in USSR

1991 hardliners in the military wage a coup against Gorbachev, coup fails

Communist Party is abolished in Russia

Soviet Union is dissolved by decree

CIS is formed

Slide 20

12 new nation states

12 new nation states

Slide 21

Russia--backsliding under Putin since 2000?

Russia--backsliding under Putin since 2000?

nostalgia for “good old days”, and Chinese model

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