To reproduce sexually, animals must have systems that produce gametes.
In most species individuals have gonads = sex organs that produce gametes.
Some simple systems do not have gonads, but gametes form from undifferentiated tissue.
The most complex systems contain many sets of accessory tubes and glands that carry, nourish, and protect gametes and developing embryos.
Most insects have separate sexes with complex reproductive systems.
In many insects, the female has a spermatheca in which sperm is stored during copulation.
(a) Male honeybee (drone)
(b) Female honeybee (queen)
Sperm duct (vas deferens)
Uterus Yolk gland
of a hermaphrodite
A cloaca is a common opening between the external environment and the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems.
A cloaca is common in nonmammalian vertebrates; mammals usually have a separate opening to the digestive tract.
The following section focuses on the human reproductive system.
The female external reproductive structures include the clitoris and two sets of labia.
The internal organs are a pair of gonads and a system of ducts and chambers that carry gametes and house the embryo and fetus.
Reproductive anatomy of the human female
Ovaries = Female Gonads