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Animal Reproduction
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Slide 1

Pairing Up for Sexual Reproduction

Pairing Up for Sexual Reproduction

Each earthworm produces sperm and eggs; in a few weeks, new worms will hatch from fertilized eggs.

Animal reproduction takes many forms.

Aspects of animal form and function can be viewed broadly as adaptations contributing to reproductive success.

Slide 2

How can each of these earthworms be both male and female?

How can each of these earthworms be both male and female?

Slide 3

Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom

Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in the animal kingdom

Sexual reproduction is the creation of an offspring by fusion of a male gamete (sperm) and female gamete (egg) to form a zygote.

Asexual reproduction is creation of offspring without the fusion of egg and sperm . One parent clones offspring.

Many invertebrates reproduce asexually by fission = separation of a parent into two or more individuals of about the same size.

Slide 4

Asexual reproduction of a sea anemone

Asexual reproduction of a sea anemone

Slide 5

Budding = new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones.

Budding = new individuals arise from outgrowths of existing ones.

Fragmentation = breaking of the body into pieces, some or all of which develop into adults.

Fragmentation must be accompanied by regeneration = regrowth of lost body parts.

Parthenogenesis is the development of a new individual from an unfertilized egg.

Asexual Reproduction

Slide 6

Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma

Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma

Sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females; this is the twofold cost of sexual reproduction.

Despite this, almost all eukaryotic species reproduce sexually.

Slide 7

The reproductive handicap of sex: Sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females.

The reproductive handicap of sex: Sexual females have half as many daughters as asexual females.

Asexual reproduction

Female

Sexual reproduction

Female

Generation 1

Male

Generation 2

Generation 3

Generation 4

Slide 8

Sexual reproduction results in genetic recombination, which provides potential advantages:

Sexual reproduction results in genetic recombination, which provides potential advantages:

An increase in variation in offspring, providing an increase in the reproductive success of parents in changing environments

An increase in the rate of adaptation

A shuffling of genes and the elimination of harmful genes from a population.

Sexual reproduction - Variety

Slide 9

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