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Animal Reproduction
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Sexual receptivity is not limited to a timeframe.

Slide 58

Estrous cycles are characteristic of most mammals:

Estrous cycles are characteristic of most mammals:

The endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus

Sexual receptivity is limited to a heat period

The length and frequency of estrus cycles varies from species to species.

Slide 59

In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mothers uterus

In placental mammals, an embryo develops fully within the mothers uterus

An egg develops into an embryo in a series of predictable events.

Slide 60

Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth

Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth

Conception = fertilization of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the oviduct.

The resulting zygote begins to divide by mitosis in a process called cleavage.

Division of cells gives rise to a blastocyst, a ball of cells with a cavity.

Slide 61

Ovary

Ovary

Uterus

Endometrium

(a) From ovulation to implantation

(b) Implantation of blastocyst

Cleavage

Fertilization

Ovulation

Cleavage continues

The blastocyst implants

Trophoblast

Inner cell mass

Cavity

Blastocyst

Endo- metrium

1

2

3

4

5

Slide 62

After blastocyst formation, the embryo implants into the endometrium.

After blastocyst formation, the embryo implants into the endometrium.

The embryo releases human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which prevents menstruation.

Pregnancy, or gestation, is the condition of carrying one or more embryos in the uterus.

Duration of pregnancy in other species correlates with body size and maturity of the young at birth.

Slide 63

Pregnancies can terminate spontaneously due to chromosomal or developmental abnormalities.

Pregnancies can terminate spontaneously due to chromosomal or developmental abnormalities.

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg begins to develop in the fallopian tube.

Slide 64

First Trimester

First Trimester

Human gestation can be divided into three trimesters of about three months each.

The first trimester is the time of most radical change for both the mother and the embryo.

During implantation, the endometrium grows over the blastocyst.

Slide 65

During its first 2 to 4 weeks, the embryo obtains nutrients directly from the endometrium.

During its first 2 to 4 weeks, the embryo obtains nutrients directly from the endometrium.

Meanwhile, the outer layer of the blastocyst, called the trophoblast, mingles with the endometrium and eventually forms the placenta.

Blood from the embryo travels to the placenta through arteries of the umbilical cord and returns via the umbilical vein.

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