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The ability of molecules to remain in the atmosphere is also related to the mass of the earth.

The escape Velocity Ve = (2Gm/R)1/2

m = Mass, G=Universal Gravitational Constant, R = Radius

Slide 27

Escape Velocity

Escape Velocity

Escape Velocity (Ve)

Ve = (2Gm/R)1/2

m = Mass of the Planet

G= Universal Gravitational Constant,

R = Radius of the Planet

Escape Velocities in km/s

Earth = 11.2 Venus = 10.3 Mars = 5.0

Slide 28

Escape Velocity

Escape Velocity

The ability of molecules to remain in an atmosphere is related to the mass.

Density Diameter Distance from Sun

Mars 3.94g/ml 6794km 227.9 Mkm

Earth 5.52g/ml 12756km 149.6 Mkm

The Molecule’s Escape Velocity and nature of the molecules determines the composition of the atmosphere.

Slide 29

No H or He in Earth’s Atmosphere

No H or He in Earth’s Atmosphere

At 600 K (Upper Atmosphere )

For H atoms 1 in 106 exceeds the escape velocity.This is High enough for rapid depletion of H from the atmosphere

As a result all the Hydrogen on earth is present in a bound state.

(Water, Organic material)

Slide 30

Little CO2 in atmosphere

Little CO2 in atmosphere

For Oxygen only 1 in 1084 atoms exceeds the escape velocity .This indicates negligible depletion of Oxygen.

Presence of Life on Earth has removed Carbon dioxide from the Atmosphere and given rise to oxygen. Shellfish/Coral.

( Calcium Carbonate and Plant Material )

Slide 31

Earth ,Venus & Mars

Earth ,Venus & Mars

Surface Characteristics of Planets

Temperature Pressure (bar)*

Venus 732 K (459oC) 90

Earth 288 K ( 15oC ) 1 (101325Pa)

Mars 223 K (-55oC ) 0.006

*1 bar = 100,000Pa

= 10m in depth of the Ocean

Slide 32

Distribution of Gases on Earth Venus & Mars

Distribution of Gases on Earth Venus & Mars

Composition of Planet’s Atmospheres in %

CO2 N2 O2 SO2 H2O

Venus 96.5 3.5 0.015

Earth 0.03 78.1 20.9 (varies)

Mars 95.3 2.7 < 0.1 0.03

Slide 33

Role of Shellfish

Role of Shellfish

Presence of Life on Earth has removed Carbon dioxide from the Atmosphere and given rise to oxygen.

Shellfish/Coral. in the Sea,Air,Land Interface has immobilized Carbon dioxide as Calcium Carbonate while Photosynthesis has given rise to oxygen and Plant Material

Slide 34

Triple point of H2O

Triple point of H2O

P(H2O) in Atmospheres

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