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Second world war
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World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts.

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The great powers that were the victors of the warthe United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and Francebecame the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

The great powers that were the victors of the warthe United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, and Francebecame the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began.

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Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations and fight more effectively in the Cold War.

Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations and fight more effectively in the Cold War.

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Benito Mussolini (left) and Adolf Hitler (right

Benito Mussolini (left) and Adolf Hitler (right

Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations and fight more effectively in the Cold War.

Slide 17

Pre-war events

Pre-war events

Italian invasion of Ethiopia (1935)

Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War

The Second ItaloAbyssinian War was a brief colonial war that began in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia).

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The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI); in addition, it exposed the weakness of the League of Nations as a force to preserve peace.

The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI); in addition, it exposed the weakness of the League of Nations as a force to preserve peace.

Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations, but the League did nothing when the former clearly violated the League's own Article X.

Slide 19

Spanish Civil War (193639)

Spanish Civil War (193639)

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The lesson of Guernica after its bombing in 1937 sparked European-wide fears that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.

The lesson of Guernica after its bombing in 1937 sparked European-wide fears that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.

Hitler and Mussolini lent military support to the Nationalist insurrection led by general Francisco Franco in Spain. The Soviet Union supported the existing government, the Spanish Republic. Furthermore, over 30,000 foreign volunteers, known as the International Brigades fought against the Nationalists.

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