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Hormones and the Endocrine System
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5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive, excretory, and reproductive system activity

Effects of mineralocorticoids:

Effects of glucocorticoids:

1. Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys

2. Increased blood volume and blood pressure

2. Possible suppression of immune system

1. Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose

Slide 66

Stress and the Adrenal Gland

Stress and the Adrenal Gland

Stress

Adrenal gland

Nerve cell

Nerve signals

Releasing hormone

Hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary

Blood vessel

ACTH

Adrenal cortex

Spinal cord

Adrenal medulla

Kidney

Slide 67

Short-term Stress and the Adrenal Gland

Short-term Stress and the Adrenal Gland

(a) Short-term stress response

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine:

2. Increased blood pressure 3. Increased breathing rate 4. Increased metabolic rate

1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose

5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness and decreased digestive, excretory, and reproductive system activity

Adrenal gland

Adrenal medulla

Kidney

Slide 68

Steroid Hormones from the Adrenal Cortex

Steroid Hormones from the Adrenal Cortex

The adrenal cortex releases a family of steroids called corticosteroids in response to stress.

These hormones are triggered by a hormone cascade pathway via the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.

Humans produce two types of corticosteroids: glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

Slide 69

Long-term Stress and the adrenal gland

Long-term Stress and the adrenal gland

(b) Long-term stress response

Effects of mineralocorticoids:

Effects of glucocorticoids:

1. Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys

2. Increased blood volume and blood pressure

2. Possible suppression of immune system

1. Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose

Adrenal gland

Kidney

Adrenal cortex

Slide 70

Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, influence glucose metabolism and the immune system.

Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, influence glucose metabolism and the immune system.

Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, affect salt and water balance.

The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of steroid hormones that function as sex hormones.

Slide 71

Gonadal Sex Hormones

Gonadal Sex Hormones

The gonads = testes and ovaries, produce most of the sex hormones: androgens, estrogens, and progestins.

All three sex hormones are found in both males and females, but in different amounts.

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