Hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH )
Anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin )
Increased cellular metabolism
Thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormone (T3 and T4 )
A tropic hormone regulates the function of endocrine cells or glands.
The four strictly tropic hormones are:
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Nontropic hormones produced by the anterior pituitary are:
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Prolactin stimulates lactation in mammals but has diverse effects in different vertebrates.
MSH influences skin pigmentation in some vertebrates and fat metabolism in mammals.
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and has tropic and nontropic actions.
It promotes growth directly and has diverse metabolic effects.
It stimulates production of growth factors.
An excess of GH can cause gigantism, while a lack of GH can cause dwarfism.
Endocrine signaling regulates metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior.
Endocrine glands respond to diverse stimuli in regulating metabolism, homeostasis, development, and behavior
The thyroid gland consists of two lobes on the ventral surface of the trachea.
It produces two iodine-containing hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Proper thyroid function requires dietary iodine for thyroid hormone production.
Thyroid hormones stimulate metabolism and influence development and maturation.
Hyperthyroidism, excessive secretion of thyroid hormones, causes high body temperature, weight loss, irritability, and high blood pressure.
Graves’ disease is a form of hyperthyroidism in humans.
Hypothyroidism, low secretion of thyroid hormones, causes weight gain, lethargy, and intolerance to cold.