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Slide 1

Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends

Slide 2

Lectures:

week1: W9 am; week2: W9 am (ICL) & 11 am (DP), F 9 am (DP); week 3: 9 am (ICL)

Books:

Inorganic Chemistry by Shriver and Atkins

Physical Chemistry by P.W.Atkins , J. De Paula

Essential Trends in Inorganic Chemistry D Mingos

Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

by P. A. Cox

Other resources:

Web-pages: http://timmel.chem.ox.ac.uk/lectures/

Ritchie/Titmuss, Quantum Theory of Atoms and Molecules, Hilary Term

Slide 3

All of chemistry (+biochemistry etc.) ultimately boils down to molecular electronic structure.

Reason: electronic structure governs bonding and thus molecular structure and reactivity

Before it is possible to understand molecular electronic structure we need to introduce a number of concepts which are more easily demonstrated in atoms.

atomic structure molecular structure chemistry

Slide 4

Mendeleyev was the first chemist to understand that all elements are related members of a single ordered system. From his table he predicted the properties of elements then unknown, of which three (gallium, scandium, and germanium) were discovered in his lifetime.

Mendeleyev,

Dmitri Ivanovich

(1834-1907)

Slide 5

This course

will introduce new concepts gradually starting with the “simplest”:

H-Atom Energy levels, Wavefunctions, Born Interpretation, Orbitals

Many electron atoms Effects of other electrons, Penetration, Quantum Defect

The Aufbau Principle Electronic Configuration of atoms and their ions

Trends in the PT Ionisation Energy, Electron Affinity, Size of atoms and ions

Slide 6

The H-Atom

H

1

1.008

Slide 7

The simplest possible system and the basis for all others:

Electron orbits the proton

under the influence

of the Coulomb Force:

Revision

Slide 8

H-Atom: consider the energy

v

ETotal =

c.m.

Slide 9

- Atomic Structure and Periodic Trends
- Why study atomic electronic structure?
- The Periodic Table
- The Hydrogen Atom
- Energy Levels?
- The Rydberg Formula
- Bohr Theory (old quantum)
- The problem with Bohr Theory
- Quantum mechanical Principles and the Solution of the Schrödinger Equation
- The Results of Quantum Mechanics
- Spherical Polar Coordinates
- The quantum numbers;
- The Radial Wavefunctions
- Revisit: The Born Interpretation
- Radial Wavefunctions and the Born Interpretation
- The Surface area of a sphere is hence:
- Construction of the radial distribution function
- Radial distribution function P(r)
- The Angular Wavefunction
- The Shapes of Wavefunctions (Orbitals)
- Electron densities representations
- The energies of orbitals
- The Ionization Energy
- Other Atoms
- Periodic Trends
- Space for extra Notes
- More on Ionization Energies
- More Periodic Trends
- Appendices

- Space Radiation
- Heat-Energy on the Move
- Mechanical, Electromagnetic, Electrical, Chemical and Thermal
- Thermal Energy
- Upcoming Classes
- Practical Applications of Solar Energy
- Buoyancy

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